Shamals and climate variability in the Northern Arabian/Persian Gulf from 1973 to 2012
This paper presents key results from analysis of surface meteorological observations collected in the Northern Arabian/Persian Gulf (N Gulf; Kuwait, Bahrain, and NE Saudi Arabia), which spans a 40-years period (1973–2012). The first part of this study analyzes climate variability in the N Gulf, and relates them to teleconnection patterns (North Atlantic Oscillation, El Nino Southern Oscillation, and Indian Ocean Dipole). Results of the analysis indicate that during the study period the climate in the region experienced a general trend of increase in temperature (0.8°C), decrease in barometric pressure (1 mbar), reduction in humidity (6%), and decrease in visibility (9%). Significant correlations were found between the three teleconnection patterns and the meteorological conditions suggesting that seasonal variabilities in air temperature, barometric pressure, and precipitation are closely related to the teleconnection patterns.