Randomized pilot trial of eight weeks of Bedaquiline (TMC207) treatment for multidrug-resistant Tuberculosis: Long-term outcome, tolerability, and effect on emergence of drug resistance

The 2-year follow-up results for a randomized placebo-controlled study of 47 patients with multidrug-resistant pulmonary tuberculosis treated with either the new diarylquinoline TMC207, recently renamed bedaquiline, or placebo, added to the first 8 weeks of a background regimen, are presented. Bedaquiline significantly reduced the time to culture conversion over 24 weeks (hazard ratio, 2.253; 95% confidence interval, 1.08 to 4.71; P = 0.031). With the exception of nausea reported in 26% of patients receiving bedaquiline and none receiving placebo, adverse events occurred at similar frequencies in both groups of patients: bilateral hearing impairment, extremity pain, acne, and noncardiac chest pain occurred in 13 and 21%, 17 and 13%, 9 and 17%, and 4 and 17% of patients, respectively, receiving bedaquiline or placebo. Excluding resistance to ethambutol and ethionamide, only one patient receiving bedaquiline acquired resistance to companion drugs, but five patients receiving placebo (4.8% versus 21.7%; P = 0.18) acquired resistance to companion drugs, and resistance to ofloxacin was acquired in four patients receiving placebo and none receiving bedaquiline (0% versus 22%; 0 = 0.066).

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