Procedia Environmental Sciences

Volume 37, 2017, Pages 182-194
open access
Procedia Environmental Sciences

The Nature of Urban Household Water Demand and Consumption in Makhado Local Municipality: A Case Study of Makhado Newtown

Under a Creative Commons license


Water crisis has become a norm worldwide as many countries are entering an era of severe water shortage. Water plays a vital role within households though urban water authorities and water planners are struggling to satisfy the growing urban water demands and at the same time failing to achieve sustainable urban water systems. Water consumption was guided by a Calculation by Grag 2011. In order to get a wider overview of the actual consumption, a survey using metre water records was done for three months and compared with other urban worldwide standards in order to identify if there is any gap.


Population growth
Water consumption
Water demand
Water distribution
Water supply

Peer-review under responsibility of the organizing committee of GU 2016.