Risk of birth defects in Australian communities with high levels of brominated disinfection by-products

By international standards, water supplies in Perth, Western Australia, contain high trihalomethane (THM) levels, particularly the brominated forms. Geographic variability in these levels provided an opportunity to examine cross-city spatial relationships between THM exposure and rates of birth defects (BDs). The goal of the study was to examine BD rates by exposure to THMs with a highly brominated fraction in metropolitan locations in Perth, Western Australia.