Detection of antibiotics in hospital effluents in India

Occurrence of antibiotics was investigated in water associated with two hospitals in Ujjain district, India. Samples of hospital associated water were subjected to solid phase extraction combined with high pressure liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS), to estimate antibiotics in incoming safe water, hospital wastewater and groundwater. The incoming safe water and groundwater were free of antibiotics; however, metronidazole, norfloxacin, sulphamethoxazole, ceftriaxone, ofloxacin, ciprofloxacin, levofloxacin and tinidazole were detected in the range of 1.4