Integrated water resources management in Central and Eastern Europe: IWRM versus EU Water Framework Directive
The countries of Central and Eastern Europe faced the challenges of becoming EU Member States. In the water sector, the environment and water quality requirements of the EU Water Framework Directive (WFD) dominate water resources planning and management. Many see this as a surrogate for IWRM, although IWRM has a much broader focus on sustainable social and economic development and not just on the environment. This paper explores the relationship between the aims of the EU WFD and the principles of IWRM.