Elephants also like coffee: Trends and drivers of human–elephant conflicts in coffee agroforestry landscapes of Kodagu, Western Ghats, India

Kodagu district produces 2% of the world’s coffee, in complex, multistoried agroforestry systems. The forests of the district harbour a large population of the Asian elephant (Elephas maximus). The combined effects of high elephant density and major landscape changes due to the expansion of coffee cultivation are the cause of human–elephant conflicts (HEC).