Light pollution and impact of light pollution

Ecological light pollution comprises direct glare, chronically increased illumination and temporary, unexpected fluctuations in lighting. The sources of ecological light pollution are very various and found in nearly every ecosystem in the form of sky glow, illuminated buildings and towers, streetlights, fishing boats, security lights, lights on vehicles, flares on offshore oil platforms, and even lights on undersea research vessels. In this paper we discuss different types of light pollution and impacts of light pollution. Avoidable light pollution refers to light flow emitted at night by artificial light sources which are inappropriate in intensity, direction and/or spectral range, unnecessary to carry out the function they are intended for, or when artificial lighting is used in particular sites, such as observatories, natural areas or sensitive landscapes. Among all causes having a negative effect on night sky quality, light pollution shows the highest immediate risks but, at the same time, it can be reduced through viable solutions.

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