Driving system shifts for climate resilience: case studies of transformative adaptation in Bhutan, Ethiopia, and Costa Rica

This working paper examines case studies of three communities in Bhutan, Ethiopia, and Costa Rica that are already experiencing severe impacts of climate change. These case studies explore the incremental and transformative adaptation measures they have adopted or will need to in the future. They focus on challenges that include water scarcity, degraded landscapes, and failing crop production. The paper also identifies the drivers of transformative adaptation as well as gaps in these communities’ transformative pathways to long-term resilience. Based on findings from community focus group discussions, expert interviews, and project documents, the authors provide a series of recommendations to inform policies and practices on how governments, adaptation funders, researchers and practitioners can support communities across the world to build long-term climate resilience at scale.