Water reuse in the Middle East and North Africa: a sourcebook

As this book highlights, the number of (direct) water reuse projects has doubled every decade since 1990, and there are more than 400 operational projects now in the MENA region. Nevertheless, the potential for resource recovery from municipal wastewater in the MENA region is still untapped. Despite the progress, only 10–11% of the municipal wastewater generated in the region is treated and reused directly, while 36% is reused indirectly, mostly in an informal and unsafe manner due to limited water treatment. Approximately 54% of the municipal wastewater is discharged into the ocean or evaporated with no productive use.