Measures to enhance forest conservation and reduce deforestation: viewpoints and lessons from producing countries

Forests sustain and protect us in a myriad of ways. They absorb carbon dioxide and provide us with oxygen, they harbour more than three quarters of terrestrial biodiversity, and they support the livelihoods of millions of people worldwide. But the world has lost 420 million hectares of forest since 1990. That's an area bigger than India. Given looming environmental crises—including climate change and biodiversity loss—the need to protect these vital ecosystems has gained significant prominence in political agendas. This report outlines and compares various policy measures that Costa Rica, Gabon, Indonesia, Peru, and Rwanda have put in place to address deforestation and explores the role of voluntary sustainability standards (VSSs) in complementing them.