Observations on survival and growth of different shola species under a shola afforestation programme in Nilgiris district

Sholas, which represent a unique vegetation complex, are very rich in biodiversity and support a high degree of endemism are known for their intrinsic values in terms of providing sustained water supply in the hills. Shola forests faced severe stress from biotic interferences like collection of firewood and fodder, recurrent man made fires in surrounding grasslands and conversion into exotic plantations, which caused their depletion.