Tool kit for publicprivate partnerships in urban bus transport for the state of Maharashtra, India

Public-private partnerships (PPPs) have been proven to catalyze both investments, for bridging investment gaps and improving efficiencies in delivery of services. The Government of India (GOI) and the Asian Development Bank (ADB), through a pioneering PPP Initiative "Mainstreaming PPPs in India," have therefore been supporting selected state PPP cells in creating an enabling environment by developing capacities, facilities, and PPP model structures for specific sectors. Assessments of national and international best practices, local circumstances, and consultations with municipal and private stakeholders have led to this PPP tool kit. The tool kit should be useful for public entities in the State of Maharashtra for developing PPP-based projects in urban bus transport and could also provide a reference point for use in other cities, across the country, for project development.