Benchmarking urban sustainability: a composite index for Mumbai and Bangalore
The study investigates if the present pattern of urban development in India in the creation of mega cities is sustainable. This has been done by comparing the Indian cities Mumbai and Bangalore with sustainable mega cities of developed countries (Shanghai, London, and Singapore) using indicators. The objectives of the study are: developing sustainable urban indicator variables spanning all the relevant sectors of a typical mega city, developing a benchmark sustainable indicator-base for a selected mega city, developing the database for Mumbai and Bangalore by adopting the same methodology and same indicators, comparing and evaluating the indicator data with the benchmark indicator database using "gap analysis" approach, and suggesting appropriate policy measures and implementation strategies to bridge identified gaps to attain the goal of sustainable urban system. Economic, Environmental, social and institutional indicators are proposed to be examined in the context of resource utilization.