Phytochemistry and pharmacological properties of Ficus religiosa: an overview

Ficus religiosa Linn is a large evergreen tree found throughout India, wild as well as cultivated. It is popular indigenous system of medicine like Ayurveda, Siddha, Unani and Homeopathy. In traditional system of medicine, various parts such as stem bark, root bark aerial roots, vegetative buds, leaves, fruits and latex are used in diabetes, vomiting, burns, gynaecological problems, dysentery, diarrhea, nervous disorders, tonic and astringent. Phytochemical investigation of plant barks, showed the presence tannins, saponins, flavonoids, steroids, terpenoids and cardiac glycosides. According to Ayurvedic system of medicine, F. religiosa (Peepal tree) is well known to be useful in diabetes. The present work is an attempt to compile an up-to-date and comprehensive review of F. religiosa that covers its ethnobotanical, natural product chemistry, pharmacological data.