Water budgeting and management: enhancing aquacultural water productivity

Application of better management practices through intensification of existing aquaculture systems with emphasis on BMP is therefore, the main approach for improving the environmental performance of aquaculture. A wide-range of technical options is available to enhance aquacultural water productivity for a particular situation or hydro-ecological condition. The two major requirements in improving aquacultural water productivity are the blue water required for culture and the input management, especially the feed. Minimization of unnecessary water exchange/ replenishment and taking advantage of the compensatory growth response, also perceived as a way to increase water productivity and profits in aquaculture operations. Sustainability of aquaculture does not contradict increasing production intensity. On the contrary, aquaculture sustainability depends on greater production intensity. Technologies reviewed in this bulletin can be applied by small scale farmers, and when combined, the effects on production are additive. Understanding the principles of pond water management and aquaculture with an effort to optimize, integrate and disseminate such a combined methodology is needed towards a sustainable blue revolution.