Lignin-graft-polyoxazoline conjugated triazole a novel anti-infective ointment to control persistent inflammation

Lignin, one of the most abundant renewable feedstock, is used to develop a biocompatible hydrogel as anti-infective ointment. A hydrophilic polyoxazoline chain is grafted through ring opening polymerization, possess homogeneous spherical nanoparticles of 10–15nm. The copolymer was covalently modified with triazole moiety to fortify the antimicrobial and antibiofilm activities. The hydrogel was capable of down regulating the expression level of IL-1β in LPS induced macrophage cells, and to cause significant reduction of iNOS production. It supported cellular anti-inflammatory activity which was confirmed with luciferase assay, western blot, and NF-κB analysis. This novel lignin-based hydrogel tested in-vivo has shown the abilities to prevent infection of burn wound, aid healing, and an anti-inflammatory dressing material. The hydrogel reported here provides a new material platform to introduce a cost-effective and efficient ointment option after undertaking further work to look at its use in the area of clinical practice.

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