How can Indonesia achieve its climate change mitigation goal? an analysis of potential emissions reductions from energy and land-use policies

Indonesia is one of the world’s largest emitters of greenhouse gases (GHG). For the past two decades, GHG emissions have increased from almost all sectors, such as land-use (defined as land use, land-use change, and forestry including peat fires), energy, agriculture, industry, and waste. Currently, the land-use and energy sector contribute to 80 percent of greenhouse gas emissions in Indonesia. The national government of Indonesia has committed to reducing unconditionally GHG emissions by 29 percent against a 2030 business-as-usual (BAU) scenario and by up to 41 percent below the 2030 BAU level, subject to international assistance for finance, technology transfer, and capacity building. This paper provides information for policy-makers, business leaders, and civil society organizations to understand mitigation options, assess opportunities, prioritize actions, and develop strategies for meeting Indonesia’s climate targets. As the first publicly available study that quantifies the emissions abatement potential of different mitigation policies in Indonesia, the study seeks to answering the following questions: To what extent would existing mitigation policies and targets in Indonesia’s land-use and energy sectors contribute to the mitigation goals set in its NDC? To what extent would strengthened policies and targets in the land-use and energy sectors contribute to the mitigation goals set in its NDC?