Policy options for a decarbonisation of passenger cars in the EU

In this policy paper the authors discuss policy instruments which can help to decarbonise passenger cars in the European Union. The authors elaborate to what extent these policy instruments are effective, technology-neutral, predictable, cost-effective and enforceable. Based on these criteria, they develop recommendations for the European Union and its Member States on: how to shape their policy frameworks in order to achieve existing climate change mitigation targets; how to support car manufacturers in selling innovative and competitive products; and how to encourage consumers in Europe to purchase appropriate vehicles.