Treeline migration and settlement recorded by Himalayan pencil cedar tree-rings in the highest alpine zone of western Himalaya, India

Himalayan pencil cedar (Juniperus polycarpos) is an evergreen tree distributed from Afghanistan, Baluchistan, Kagan valley, Kashmir, Lahaul-Spiti to upper reaches of western Tibet. In the western Himalaya treeline of the Juniperus polycarpos is not well defined because of the topographical barriers and variation in orography. Climatic variations and ecological conditions change rapidly from one valley to other due to the complex settings of mountain ranges in the Himalaya.

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