Water security for India: the external dynamics

The report by Institute for Defence Studies and Analyses is premised on the fact that India is facing a serious water resource problem and is expected to become 'water stressed' by 2025 and 'water scarce' by 2050. It raises fundamental questions about the forces driving water demand and the political dynamics of riparian relations, both in terms of hindrances and opportunities, amongst states in the subcontinent. Rivers, a crucial source of water resources, physically link upstream and downstream users and at the same time create barriers. The report begins with a discussion on what water security means for India and examines the relevance of water in the larger national security context. In examining the water management conundrum, the report takes stock of the water situation in India and critiques some aspects of its water management policies. The thrust, however, is on the external riparian dynamics. A regional riparian evaluation follows thereafter with focused analyses of India's water related issues with Pakistan, China, Bangladesh, Nepal and Bhutan.