In the absence of historical field data, developing countries can rely on consistent current ground data and remote sensing assessments.
Climate is a major driver of forest species distributions and the growth rate and structure of forests. Thus, climate change can potentially have significant effects on mountain forest hydrology, particularly the amount of water available downstream. However, many other factors influence forest biomass and mountain hydrology, and climate change effects cannot be viewed in isolation from previous land use histories (i.e. forest legacies), altered disturbance regimes (e.g. fire frequency, insect outbreaks, floods) and invasive species.
In Zimbabwe, the area occupied by national parks, safari areas, recreational parks sad sanctuaries (collectively called the Wildlife Estate) totals about 47000 km2, or 12.5 percent of the total land area. This area is the responsibility of the Ministry of Natural Resources and Tourism and is managed by the Department of National Parks and Wildlife Management (DNPWLM) which is also responsible for wildlife resources throughout the country, including commercial and communal areas.