Household energy access for cooking and heating: lessons learned and the way forward

This study provides the review of two World Bank experts on the 19 household projects supported by the Bank. The study provides eight lessons, namely: (1) holistic approach to household fuels is needed: the fuel-wood supply has to be sustainable; improved stoves and alternative fuels are needed; and institutions must be able to create and implement regulatory incentives that work; (2) Public awareness campaigns are needed: households need to be informed of the risks they face by using inefficient stoves; (3) Local communities must be involved early on: this includes governments, NGOs and the private sector; (4) Consumer fuel subsidies don’t help poor people. Wealthier households benefit the most from subsidies, which cause fiscal deficits; (5) Both market-based and public support are needed to commercialize cookstoves. A cookstove market is the best long-term solution, but public support is needed at the early stage; (6) Cookstove users’ needs must come first: users who get what they want from cookstoves will adopt them; (7) Durability of cookstoves is important: durable stoves made of good quality materials will get used; and (8) Microfinance helps cookstove programs succeed.

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