India's long term hydrofluorocarbon emissions
India is following the Hydrochlorofluorocarbon Phaseout Management Plan (HPMP) as part of its international commitment under the Montreal Protocol to mitigate consumption of ozone depleting substances. This transition is almost complete in developed countries. However, the phaseout of Hydrochlorofluorocarbons (HCFCs) has largely resulted in a transition towards Hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs), which are potent greenhouse gases. Within India, almost all refrigeration and air-conditioning systems produced and marketed use HCFC-22. The impending transition away from HCFCs would in all probability lead to higher consumption and emission of HFCs in India. If India moves towards HFCs across sectors, there will be significant increase in the emissions of HFCs. However, the pace and magnitude of these emissions is not well understood. The Council on Energy, Environment and Water (CEEW, India) along with the International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis (IIASA, Austria) has recently published a joint report on ‘India's Long Term Hydrofluorocarbon Emissions’. The report finds that with economic growth and increasing per-capita incomes, more and more people will buy air-conditioners, refrigerators, as well as personal vehicles. Higher penetration of all these technologies in the residential and commercial sectors forms the key driver of higher consumption and emission of HFCs. If HFC's consumption is not phased down, total HFC emissions will increase to 500 MtCO2-eq in 2050. This is based on the assumption that HFCs used as alternatives in developed countries will replace HCFCs in India as well.