A comparison of nitrogen oxide (NOx) emissions from heavy-duty diesel, natural gas, and electric vehicles

Diesel, natural gas, and electric heavy-duty vehicles can be designed and manufactured with the capability of complying with the ultra-low NOx limits envisioned in the next set of California and federal HDV regulations. But that is not to say that the outcomes for each are equivalent. This briefing compares the capabilities of these three powertrain types in meeting an ultra-low NOx standard across four key areas: Feasibility. Will the technology be available in the timeframe of the regulation and can the technology be configured to produce ultra-low NOx in line with the limits of the regulation? Cost. What is the incremental cost of achieving regulatory compliance and what is the cost-benefit analysis of a given technology? Health impacts. How do the overall health impacts vary from technology to technology, even when the ultra-low NOx emissions standard is met? Climate impacts. What are the climate benefits of the different technology solutions?