The evolution of heavy-duty vehicles in China: a retrospective evaluation of CO2 and pollutant emissions from 2012 to 2021

This study evaluates the effectiveness of policies in curtailing emissions from heavy-duty vehicles over the 2012-2021 period and lays a foundation for developing future regulations for direct control of CO2. The analysis explores the development of heavy-duty vehicles from the perspective of key attributes (curb weight, engine power, and others), fuel consumption/CO2 emissions for various HDV segments, and NOX emissions from tailpipes. It focuses on six vehicle segments: city buses, coaches, dump trucks, medium straight trucks, heavy straight trucks, and tractor trailers.