Shining the light on climate action: the role of non-party institutions
Article 13 of the Paris Agreement establishes a transparency mechanism to enhance the parties’ trust in the UN climate regime. But many states at present lack the institutional capacity to fully carry out their obligations under the Paris Agreement. The differences in their domestic capacities have influenced how parties have approached negotiations on transparency. Developed countries demand the same rules for everyone; many developing countries seek differential treatment in reporting, assessments and reviews. The authors examine how parties might encourage non-party stakeholders to supplement state efforts toward transparency and accountability and make their participation a more formal and legitimate part of the new transparency mechanism. Parties might achieve these aims by investing in these stakeholders’ capacity to report on emissions and financial flows, developing common standards for country assessments and giving the stakeholders a greater role in the review process.