European Union CO2 standards for new passenger cars and vans: Interim targets for new vehicle CO2 emissions

With introduction of the EU’s first CO2 standard for new passenger cars, official type-approval emissions decreased at a rate of about 3.5% per year, compared to about 1.2% prior to regulation. The 2015 target of 130 g/km was met well in advance by manufacturers. During the 2016 to 2019 timeframe, however, when the 2015 target remained in place without any strengthening, CO2 levels increased at a rate of about 0.5% per year. It was only from January 2020 onward that emission levels decreased again, at the unprecedented rate of about 20% within one year. The 2020 target of about 97 g/km on average was met by all manufacturers without any substantial fines. Data for the first months of 2021 suggests that after having achieved compliance with the 2020 target—which is nearly identical to the 2021 target—average CO2 emission levels stagnated again.