Incentivizing electric vehicles to meet fuel consumption standards for passenger cars in India

Market projections for electric vehicle growth in India are ambitious but uncertain. In addition, the passenger car CO2 standards enforced in India are amongst the most lenient, and the super-credit multipliers available for electric vehicles are more generous compared to global practices. Further, in India, electric vehicles are not treated as zero-emission vehicles, nor are they required to account for upstream emission impacts. Instead, they are assumed to be displacing an equivalent volume of gasoline that would have been combusted in a conventional vehicle and resulting emissions. India also does not have sales targets declared for electric vehicles. The prevailing super-credit multiplier values prescribed in the Indian standards offer excessive compliance flexibility to manufacturers. This study demonstrates that if the current super-credit multipliers for electric vehicles in India prevail, fuel consumption of conventional vehicles can significantly lag fleet average levels and can even stay stagnant near 2017 emission levels through 2030.